Criss-crossing reactions are emerging across the world over the recent reports that United Nations Security Council has adopted a resolution authorizing a no-fly zone over conflict-torn Libya.
The resolution was adopted Thursday with 10 votes in favor and five abstentions. China and Russia, two permanent members with veto power on the Council, abstained from voting.
Russia’s top military officials said Russian forces would not participate in a possible military operation against Libya authorized by the UN Security Council, Russian media reported Friday.
“This is out of question,” Makarov said.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev told the country’s Security Council on Friday that Moscow must think of the safety of its diplomats remaining in Libya after the UN resolution has been adopted.
“We must discuss the issue immediately and think of the security of our diplomatic personnel remaining in Libya,” Medvedev was quoted by RIA Novosti news agency as saying.
China supports the Security Council’s “adoption of appropriate and necessary action to stabilize as soon as possible the situation in Libya and to halt acts of violence against civilians,” but “China has serious difficulty with part of the resolution,” said Li Baodong, China’s permanent representative to the United Nations.
Meanwhile, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu said, “We oppose the use of force in international relations and have some serious reservations with part of the resolution.”
“Considering the concern and stance of Arab countries and the Africa Union as well as the special situation in Libya, China and some countries abstained from voting on the draft resolution,” Jiang said.
“The current crisis in Libya should be resolved through dialogue and by other peaceful means,” she added.
U.S. President Barack Obama called British Prime Minister David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy and they agreed Libya “must immediately comply with all terms of the resolution.”
In their phone talks, the leaders of the United States, Britain and France agreed to “coordinate closely on the next steps” and continue working with Arab and other international partners to ensure the enforcement of the resolutions, the White House said.
U.S. State Secretary Hillary Clinton said on Friday that the final result of U.N. resolution on Libya must be Gaddafi’s departure.
European Council President Herman Van Rompuy and European Union foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said in a joint statement that “we fully endorse the U.N. demand for a complete end to the violence and all attacks against, and abuses of, civilians, and finding a solution to the crisis.”
The European Council has called on Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi to “relinquish power immediately and urged Libya to rapidly embark on an orderly transition to democracy through broad-based dialogue.”
NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen welcomed the resolution.
He said the three principles for NATO to take operations on Libya had been met and the alliance was working on completing its plans.
“There is an urgent need, firm support from the region and a clear U.N. mandate for necessary international action,” he said.
The French government said military action against Libya would come “within hours” and France will participate in the move.
“The military strikes against Gaddafi will take place quickly,” a government spokesman Francois Baroin said, adding the operation was aimed at protecting Libyan civilians, ruling out any occupation of Libyan territory.
Cameron said his country will help enforce the UN no-fly zone.
Britain will deploy RAF Tornado and Typhoon aircraft as well as air-to-air refueling and surveillance aircraft and in the coming hours the planes will be moved to air bases where they can take action, he said.
Germany wouldn’t send soldiers to Libya after considering the dangers and risks, said Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle.
He believed “an alternative to the military action is to increase pressure and tighten sanctions” against Gaddafi.
The Spanish government said it would make its air force bases in Seville province available to NATO forces.
It would also contribute both air and naval forces in any possible international operation to enforce the no-fly zone.
Italy will make its military bases available and take an active role in any operations against Libya, Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said on Friday.
Italy also plans to close its embassy in Tripoli, Frattini said in a hearing in parliament, after the United Nations Security Council authorized action.
“We appreciated the resolution (of the U.N. Security Council) and we fully support it,” he said.
“The Italian decision is not just full support for the resolution but also the necessity of participatiing actively.”
Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte said he was pleased with the U.N. resolution. Denmark will send six F-16 fighter jets and a military transport aircraft to help enforce the no-fly zone. ‘ Swedish Foreign Minister Cal Bildt said, “I welcome the resolution from the U.N. Security Council that authorizes all necessary means to protect civilians.”
Meanwhile, Amr Moussa, chief of the Arab League, said the U.N. resolution is only designated to impose a no-fly zone over Libya, not to pave the way for an invasion of the country.
Egypt says it won’t participate in any military action in Libya.
Qatar welcomed the U.N. resolution and decided to take part in international efforts to protect civilians in Libya.
Norwegian Defense Minister Grete Faremo said Norway is willing to participate in any military action against Libya’s government forces.
Turkey said it supports the U.N. resolution and urged for an immediate ceasefire, while reiterating opposition against foreign intervention in the country.
Libyan Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim said Libya would positively react to the U.N. resolution.
Kaim said Libya welcomed articles in the resolution on the protection of civilians and Libya’s national sovereignty and territorial integrity.
However, he called on other countries not to arm Libya’s rebel forces, saying otherwise that “will be inviting Libyans to kill each other.”
Meantime, Europe’s air traffic control organization said Libya has closed its airspace to all traffic.
“The latest information from Malta indicates that Tripoli does not accept (air) traffic,” Eurocontrol said.
Bulgarian Foreign Minister Nickolay Mladenov said Friday that Bulgaria will act in full compliance with the resolution on Libya that the UN Security Council adopted Thursday evening, but it can’ t commit to taking part in direct military action against the North African country.
Bulgaria would share in all efforts – not only those mandated by the Security Council but also those agreed within NATO and the EU. “This means providing humanitarian aid and helping with the additional evacuation of people wishing to leave Libya,” Mladenov explained.
However, the foreign minister pointed out that at this stage, ” I don’t think that Bulgaria can commit itself to open military action in Libya.”
French President Nicolas Sarkzoy is to hold a high-profile meeting of leaders and representatives from the Arab League, European Council and other concerned organizations and countries to discuss the UN resolution on Libya on Saturday, the Elysee Palace said Friday.
France has invited Chairman and Secretary General of the Arab League Amr Moussa, President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy, and other high representatives of concerned organizations and states “who are willing to support the implementation of this resolution,” said the Elysee statement.
Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper said Friday that Canada will send warplanes to help enforce the United Nations resolution on Libya, despite Libya’s cease-fire declaration.
Harper said that he has authorized the deployment of CF-18 fighter jets to join the HMCS Charlottetown, a Canadian frigate which has been deployed in the region.
“We will now take the urgent action necessary to support it,” Harper said at a news conference in the Parliament.
The Georgian foreign ministry on Friday issued a special statement to welcome the UN resolution on Libya.
“Tbilisi welcomes the initiative for keeping the peace and stability in the world,” read the statement. “We always will respect the internationally-recognized human rights values and the freedom of choice of people.”